Archangels

Metatron

1 Enoch: Book of Parables presents two figures: the son of man and Enoch. At first these two characters seem to be separate entities. Enoch views the son of man enthroned in Heaven. Later, however, they prove to be one and the same. Many scholars believe that the final chapters in the Book of Parables are a later addition. Others think they are not and that the son of man is Enoch’s heavenly double similarly to the Prayer of Joseph where Jacob is depicted as an angel.: 83–84 The Book of Daniel displays two similar characters: the Ancient of Days and the one like a man. Parts of the text in Daniel are Aramaic and may have been changed in translation. The Septuagint reads that the son of man came as the Ancient of Days.

The identification of Metatron with Enoch is not explicitly made in the Talmud although it does reference a Prince of the World who was young but now is old. However, some of the earliest kabbalists assumed the connection. There also seems to be two Metatrons, one spelled with six letters (מטטרון), and one spelled with seven (מיטטרון). The former may be the transformed Enoch, Prince of the Countenance within the divine palace; the latter, the Primordial Metatron, an emanation of the “Cause of Causes”, specifically the tenth and last emanation, identified with the earthly Divine Presence. Furthermore, the Merkabah text Re’ uyot Yehezkel identifies the Ancient of Days from the Book of Daniel as Metatron.

Many scholars see a discontinuity between how Enoch is portrayed in the early Enoch literature and how Metatron is portrayed. Scholars commonly see the character of Metatron as being based on an amalgam of Jewish literature, in addition to Enoch, Michael, Melchizedek and Yahoel among others are seen as influences.: 86 Gershom Scholem argues Metatron’s character was influenced by two streams of thought. One of which linked Metatron with Enoch, while the second was a fusing of different obscure entities and mythic motifs.:180 Scholem argues that this second tradition was original separate but later became fused with the Enoch tradition.: 141-142 He points to texts where this second Metatron is a primordial angel and referred to as Metatron Rabbah.: 141 Scholem theorizes that the two Hebrew spellings of Metatron’s name are representative of these two separate traditions.: 142 In his view the second Metatron is linked to Yahoel. Scholem also links Yahoel with Michael.: 141 In the Apocalypse of Abraham Yahoel is assigned duties normally reserved for Michael. Yahoel’s name is commonly seen as a substitute for the Ineffable Name. In 2 Enoch, Enoch is assigned titles commonly used by Metatron such as “the Youth, the Prince of the Presence and the Prince of the World.”: 141 However we do not see Enoch referred to as the Lesser YHWH.: 141 In 3 Enoch Metatron is call the lesser YHWH. This raises a problem since the name Metatron does not seem to be directly related to the name of God YHWH.: 140 Scholem proposes this is because the lesser YHWH is a reference to Yahoel.: 140 In Maaseh Merkabah the text reasons that Metatron is called the lesser YHWH because in Hebrew gematria Metatron is numerically equivalent to another name of God Shaddai. Scholem does not find this convincing.: 140 Scholem point to the fact that both Yahoel and Metatron where known as the lesser YHWH. In 3 Enoch 48D1 Metatron is called both Yahoel Yah and Yahoel. In addition to being one of the seventy names of Metatron from 3 Enoch 48D. Yahoel and Metatron are also linked in Aramaic incantation bowl inscriptions.: 86